Rather, there are two reasons why type 2 diabetes occurs. It was found that the risks for diabetes in africanamericans, hispanics, and native americans are approximately 2, 2. Age is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Understand your risk for diabetes american heart association. Management of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2. Cardiovascular disease incidence and risk factor patterns. Risk factors and complications in type 2 diabetes outpatients scielo. Diabetes mellitus dm is associated with microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy dr.
As exercise can help muscles use glucose from the bloodstream, a sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for diabetes. Studies have identified at least 150 dna variations that are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. According to the 20152016 guidelines of the brazilian diabetes society. Having a close family member with type 2 diabetes can raise your own risk of developing the condition. Many factors have been associated with the progression and severity. Type 2 diabetes, environment, lifestyle, diabetes risk factors, diabetes prevention, diet, physical activity. Being overweight is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes risk factors what risk factors do you have. Obesity is by far the most famous risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Age is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The global prevalence of diabetes is estimated to increase from 4% in 1995 to 5.
The international diabetes federation idf estimates that as many as 212 million people, or half of all adults currently living with diabetes, are undiagnosed. Smoking is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, and also increases the risk of other health conditions such as heart disease and cancer. The world health organization has predicted that the major burden will occur in the developing countries and there will be a 42% increase. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes once known as non insulindependent diabetes mellitus niddm or adultonset diabetes, is where the pancreas doesnt produce enough insulin or the bodys cells dont react to insulin. Nov 21, 2019 type 2 diabetes is a highly prevalent condition with numerous risk factors. Sindh of pakistan using who guidelines for the diagnosis of t2dm and igt.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in african americans, hispanicslatinos, native americans, asian americans, and native hawaiians and pacific islanders. Austin, ms, rph, cde multiple prescribers aging population complex drug therapies psychosocial contributions adverse drug reactions that may be interpreted as new medical conditions table 1. Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in. Having a family history of type 1 diabetes increases the risk, but a. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of vascular disease and. Having a parent, brother, or sister with type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods the population for analysis consisted of 4,536 subjects free from diabetes at baseline. Cardiovascular disease cvd is the leading cause of death in people with diabetes mellitus. If someone in your close family has or had it, you are more likely to develop it. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of. A higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in males and younger population was observed in bangalore, india. Your chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. History of gestational diabetes if you developed diabetes during pregnancy or delivered a baby over 9 lbs.
Obesity a risk factor for diabetic retinopathy in type 2. Risk factors contributing to type 2 diabetes and recent advances. Diabetes spectrum volume 19, number 1, 2006 polypharmacy as a risk factor in the treatment of type 2 diabetes roger p. Age risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age, especially after 45, because people tend to exercise less and gain weight. Although it can set in at any age, type 2 diabetes tends. Background type 2 diabetes mellitus t2dm is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life.
A sample of 2 039 patients with t2dm from a primary care setting. Patients with type 2 diabetes who had five riskfactor variables within the target ranges appeared to have little or no excess risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, as compared with the. Increasing age is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The desire to take medicine is perhaps the greatest feature which distinguishes man from animals. It was found that people with type 2 diabetes had a modest increased risk of developing depression. Followup time began at the time of blood sampling observational risk by levels of hdl cholesterol, or at the establishment of the national danish patient registry 1 january 1977, or on the birthday of the participant, whichever came later risk by. Its incidence and risk factor patterns vary widely across different diabetic populations. If you have low levels of highdensity lipoprotein hdl, or good, cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Objective to investigate the association between serum uric acid level and risk of type 2 diabetes. Research has found that smoking is a direct cause of type 2 diabetes. Methods a casecohort study n3576, including 654 macrovascular events, 341 microvascular events and 631 deaths during 5 years of median followup, was undertaken as a secondary analysis of the action in diabetes and vascular disease.
In england, obese adults are five times more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes than adults of a healthy weight. Diabetes is a condition that affects the bodys ability to use blood sugar for energy. Sir william osler 184919191 polypharmacy is a term that has been used in health care for decades. This longterm prospective study of a large cohort of women with pcos, followed from youth to middle age, aimed at estimating, for the first time, the. Risk factors, mortality, and cardiovascular outcomes in. Pdf on jul 1, 2015, rosa maria salinascontreras and others published type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for dementia find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Dr is one of the main causes of visual loss in individuals aged 2064 years old and is present in more than 77% of patients with dm type 2 who survive for over 20 years with the disease. Many nongenetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. Those women who suffer from it face greater laterlife risks of developing type 2 diabetes, as do their children. By ketut suastika, pande dwipayana, made siswadi semadi and r. Being overweight is a main risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although you cant change risk factors such as family history, age, or ethnicity, you can change lifestyle risk factors around eating, physical activity, and weight. This collaborative study examined whether stress at work, defined as job strain, is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of.
Smoking cigarettes may increase a persons risk for developing type 2 diabetes and can make managing the disease more difficult. People with type 2 diabetes mellitus t2dm, compared with nondiabetic individuals, have increased cardiovascular risk. The four main risk factors for type 2 diabetes are. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes in alzheimer disease. Oct 18, 2007 the underlying pathway for development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Test2prevent know your risk of type 2 diabetes try our. Higher body weight increases diabetes risk for everyone. Sep 06, 2014 there are two primary forms of diabetes, insulindependent diabetes mellitus type 1 diabetes mellitus, t1dm and noninsulindependent diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes mellitus, t2dm. Have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes. A diet rich in processed foods and refined carbohydrates is often linked with type 2 diabetes.
Other factors that can affect your risk of type 2 diabetes smoking. Type 2 diabetes risk factors risk factors of type 2 diabetes. However, this definition understates the potential for harm. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Most of these changes are common and are present both in people with diabetes and in those without. Polypharmacy as a risk factor in the treatment of type 2. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and costeffective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. Lifestyle changes can be more effective than drugs in preventing type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes begins to rise significantly at about age 45, and rises considerably after age 65. Type 2 diabetes risk factors are classifying into two. Risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in bengaluru. The underlying pathway for development of type 2 diabetes is unclear.
T2dm is the most common form of dm, which accounts for 90% to 95% of all diabetic patients 1 and is expected to increase to 439 million by 2030 2. These lifestyle changes can affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is another major risk, and affects about 2 to 5 per cent of women who fall pregnant. Walking 30 minutes a day and reducing weight by 5 percent can decrease that risk by 60 percent over three. However, you dont have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
Association 56 exercise guidelines has recommended exercising no less than every 48 hours to. Part of this excess risk is associated with a higher prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors in these patients, such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes all involve an imbalance of blood sugar, but the risk factors for each may vary. But many people with type 2 diabetes arent aware they have it and may already have developed various health complications associated with the disease.
A number of crosssectional and prospective studies that compared the insulin sensitivity of various national and ethnic populations within the u. May 03, 2019 type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes all involve an imbalance of blood sugar, but the risk factors for each may vary. There is a clear correlation between the number of people who. This condition results from a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, some of which have not been identified. Information on diagnoses of type 2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease were collected as previously described 17,22,23. The good news is you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. To find out, lets take a look at the most common risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and better determine which ones may apply to you.
The body still makes insulin, but cant use it properly this is called insulin resistance insulin production in the pancreas decreases this is called insulin deficiency. The three types are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome pcos recently has been identified as a risk factor associated with type 2 diabetes. Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes follows a continuum across all levels of abnormal glycemia, when classified categorically, the individuals demonstrably at highest risk include those with impaired fasting glucose ifg, impaired glucose tolerance igt, or a glycated hemoglobin a1c level of 5. Asian americans are at increased diabetes risk at lower body weight than the rest of the general public about 15 pounds lower. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Being overweight, being age 45 or older, and being physically active less than 3 times a week are risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Dec 07, 2016 to find out, lets take a look at the most common risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and better determine which ones may apply to you. Diabetes contributes to more than 230,000 deaths in the united states per year. Objective this report examines what is known about the relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes and how future research in these areas might be directed to benefit prevention, interventions, and overall patient care. Cardiovascular risk and risk factor management in type 2. Risk factors and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an immune reaction the body attacks itself by mistake. Currently, treatment guidelines generally recommend the use of.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus t2dm is the commonest form of diabetes constituting 90% of the diabetic population. This longterm prospective study of a large cohort of women with pcos, followed from youth to middle age. Modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes while some things that contribute to the development of diabetes are beyond a persons control, there are also a number of modifiable risk factors. Many people dont know they have diabetes or at risk of getting it. High serum uric acid as a novel risk factor for type 2. If you store fat mainly in the abdomen, you have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store fat elsewhere, such as in your hips and thighs. There is a lot of support available if you are thinking about stopping smoking. Adult obesity and type 2 diabetes 5 summary prevalence being overweight or obese is the main modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Certain ethnic groups are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, including africanamericans, hispanic americans, native americans, and asian americans. Obesity and fh were significant risk factors for not only type 2 diabetes but also early onset of diabetes. Pdf the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally and poses a heavy burden on public health and socioeconomic development of. Without adequate insulin sensitivity, too much glucose stays in the bloodstream, which may lead to dangerous.
Type 2 diabetes mostly starts in middle or old age when your body restricts to respond to insulin. Research design and methods an international working group of 32 experts in the pathophysiology, genetics, clinical trials, and. A number of crosssectional and prospective studies that compared the insulin. Fiber, fruit, and vegetables are protective against the disease. Youre at risk for developing type 2 diabetes if you.
The disease is marked by an increase in blood sugar glucose levels and heightened resistance to the hormone insulin, which shuttles glucose into the cells. Methods we searched pubmed to capture all metaanalyses and mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of t2dm. Review risk factors contributing to type 2 diabetes and. In addition, maternal history of type 2 diabetes and consanguinity increased incidence of early onset type 2 diabetes. Currently 90% of adults with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese. However, the evidence derives from crosssectional observational studies, retrospective studies, or shortterm prospective studies. Polypharmacy as a risk factor in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Life style related risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its. Idf has created an online diabetes risk assessment which aims to predict an individuals risk of developing type 2 diabetes within the next ten years.
Results the age and sexadjusted hazard ratios hrs 95%. The aim of the study was to investigate whether obesity, independently or associated with other risk factors, increases the risk for the diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic persons. Risk factors and complications of type 2 diabetes in asians. In conventional use, it has meant the concurrent use of multiple medications in the same patient. Type 2 diabetes is now also increasing among children, adolescents and younger adults because of obesity.
People who are obese have added pressure on their bodys ability to use insulin to properly control blood sugar levels and are therefore more likely to develop diabetes. Read about risk factors for type 2 diabetes below and see which ones apply to you. Risk factors for type 1 diabetes are not as clear as for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. This study aims to assess the incidence and risk factor patterns of cvd events among omanis with t2dm. Having blood pressure over 14090 millimeters of mercury mm hg is linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Webmd explains the risk factors for type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. Pdf type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for dementia. Risk factors contributing to type 2 diabetes and recent. Certain ethnic groups are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, including africanamericans, hispanic americans, native americans, and asian. This is the greatest single risk factor for type 2 diabetes and one you can control. Have ever had gestational diabetes diabetes during pregnancy or given birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds. If youre atrisk, paying attention to living a healthy lifestyle or getting early treatment can, for some, actually return blood sugar levels to a normal range. Predictors for polypharmacy include the number of drugs at start, patient age, the presence of conditions such as diabetes or coronary ischemic disease, and the use of medications without clear indications. In cases of type 2 diabetes when they were present, the duration of type 2 diabetes correlated with the density of diffuse p type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Pdf advanced research on risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Apr 15, 2019 a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in males and younger population was observed in bangalore, india. It is more prevalent than type 1 diabetes and is therefore seen in roughly 90% of all.243 1102 558 290 737 201 381 1645 348 852 1603 926 1352 209 1151 1271 1439 490 1481 1441 898 577 1394 622 415 1053 977 662 1016 637 635 428 853 225